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Renesas Electronics America - Knowledgebase

Can you describe the function of ROM correction using 78K0 devices?

Latest Updated:04/01/2006


ROM correction can be used with 78K0 devices, but I do not understand this function well.
Please describe it.


The ROM correction function provides a means to correct a program previously written to ROM in a microcontroller by applying a patch to the program.
Although this function is convenient in that it can be used to correct programs already written to ROM, it cannot be used under all conditions.

Before using this function, part of the target processing must already be included in the program to be corrected, and external memory is required to read the corrected program.

ROM correction operations and their requirements are described below.

[1] Basic operations for ROM correction

First of all, for ROM correction to work, there must be a way to distinguish between parts of the target program that are automatically executed by hardware (the CPU, etc.) and parts that must rely on support from the application.
The following is an example of ROM correction operations that occur once the required settings have been entered.

Outline of ROM correction processing in 78K0 device

(1)When the CPU fetches an instruction during execution of a program, the target address for fetching is compared with the ROM correction address set in the CORADn register, and if the two addresses match, a branch instruction (BR !0F7FDH) is executed instead of the original instruction.
When this branch instruction is executed, the processing up to that point is stopped and processing branches to address 0F7FDH.
At that time, the correction address where the match occurred is indicated by setting the corresponding bits (CORST0 and CORST1) in the CORCN register.


The processing described above is performed by the ROM correction hardware, and the processing described below is performed by application programs.


(2)Since the BR ! 0F7FDH instruction sets a branch at the end of the internal expansion RAM area, it is necessary to branch the processing to the address where ROM correction processing will be actually performed.

(3)Up to two locations can be specified for ROM correction.
The CORST0 and CORST1 bits are used to determine which addresses are being compared as matching, and then the corresponding program (batch processing) is executed.
Be sure to clear these corresponding CORST bits at this time.

(4)Once the batch processing has been completed, processing branches back to the original program.


As noted above, ROM correction hardware is used along with the processing program that has already been included in the application program to execute the correction program through patch processing.

[2] Hardware preparation for ROM correction

To execute ROM correction, there must be hardware that can read the correction program.
Connect an EEPROM that is controlled by a serial interface and write the correction program into it.
In such cases, the ROM correction program must be read via the serial interface and written to internal expansion RAM during initialization processing.

[3] Support from initialization program

In addition to preparing the hardware to be used for ROM correction as described above, certain required settings must be provided in the initialization program.

Initialization processing for ROM correction

The processing shown in the flowchart above is required as part of the initialization processing to enable use of the ROM correction function.
The following description refers to this flowchart.

To enable use of external memory, the serial interface must first be initialized.

(1)Either set up an input port or set up a flag that indicates whether or not a particular address in external memory must be used for ROM correction, and check this setting before starting initialization processing.
If the ROM correction function does not need to be used, skip steps (2) to (4) below and continue with the subsequent processing.

(2)Set parameters
Read the parameters (correction addresses) required for ROM correction from external memory and set them to the CORAD register.

(3) Load correction program
Next load the program to be executed for ROM correction from external memory, and write the program to the internal expansion RAM area that will be used for actual execution of the program.
Since the internal expansion RAM will actually be used to execute the program, several dozen bytes of space must be reserved at the end of the internal expansion RAM area for ROM correction.
These actions may be performed about the same time as when setting the parameters in step (2) above.

(4)Set COREN bits
Finally, to enable ROM correction processing, set the COREN0 and COREN1 bits (to 1) in the CORCN register that corresponds to the ROM correction addresses to be used.

The following shows a sample program that contains the processing described in steps (2) to (4) above.
In this sample program, the subroutine GET1CH is executed to read one byte from the serial interface, and the result is entered in the A register (the HL register is not affected).
The start address of the internal expansion RAM to be used for ROM correction is defined as PATCH.
However, ROM correction should use an area of 256 bytes or less in the internal expansion RAM.
; Starts initialization for ROM correction
        MOV     CORCN,#0        ; Prohibits ROM correction
        MOVW    HL,#PATCH       ; Sets copy destination address
        CALL    !GET1CH         ; Reads one byte
        MOV     [HL],A          ; Writes to internal expansion RAM
        INC     L               ; Updates address
        BNZ     $LOOP1          ; Loops until completed to 0F7FFH
        MOVW    AX,!PATCH       ; Reads address setting for channel 0
        MOVW    CORAD0,AX       ; Sets address
        PUSH    AX              ; Saves channel 0 address
        MOVW    AX,!PATCH+2     ; Reads address setting for channel 1
        MOVW    CORAD1,AX       ; Sets address
        OR      A,X             ; Checks addresses
        BZ      $NEXT1          ; Ignores address if value is 0000
        SET1    COREN1          ; Sets channel 1 as valid
        POP     AX              ; Recovers channel 0 address
        OR      A,X
        BZ      $NEXT2          ; Ignores address if value is 0000
        SET1    COREN0          ; Sets channel 0 as valid
; Ends initialization for ROM correction

[4] Pre-processing for ROM correction

When the addresses match, the BR !0F7FDH instruction is executed instead of the instruction to be corrected and the processing branches to address 0F7FDH.
Since instructions are set only as far as address 0F7FDH, so a branch instruction is set here so as to branch the processing to the start of the processing that executes the actual ROM correction.

[5] Configuration of programs for ROM correction

The correction programs and parameters used for ROM correction are described below.

Two addresses for setting ROM correction, the correction program, and a branch instruction for entries must be prepared in the external memory.

For simplicity's sake, a 64-byte area is reserved as the target area.
The 64 bytes of data for this area are transferred to the end of the internal expansion RAM area (0F7C0H to 0F7FFH).
The following program should be then set up, with RETADR0 as PATCH0's branch address for ROM correction's first target address and RETRAD1 as PATCH1's branch address for ROM correction's second target address.

Define PATCH0 for ADDR0 and PATCH1 for ADDR1 by a DW pseudo instruction.
In the initialization processing for ROM correction, the contents of ADDR0 and ADDR1 are checked.
If they are "0000", then ROM correction is not used in the corresponding channel.
If they are not "0000", ROM correction is used in the corresponding channel (the corresponding bits in the CORCN register are set to 1).


ADDR0:  DW      PATCH0   ; Address where correction will be set
ADDR1:  DW      PATCH1   ; Address where correction will be set
        BT      CORCN.0, $PROCE0
        CLR1    CORCN.2    ; Processing corresponding to CONST1
         ;                 ; Required processing is described here
         ;                 ; Required processing is described here
        BR      !RETADR1   ; Branch to main routine upon completion
                           ; of processing
        CLR1    CORCN.0    ; Processing corresponding to CONST0
         ;                 ; Required processing is described here
         ;                 ; Required processing is described here
        BR      !RETADR0   ; Branch to main routine upon completion
                           : of processing
        BR      !STARTADR

[6] ROM correction conflicts

It is quite unusual for multiple ROM correction processes to occur at the same time.
However, when ROM correction has been set up as an interrupt service and an interrupt occurs during ROM correction processing, it is possible that other ROM correction processing may be executed while the interrupt is being serviced.

In such cases, priority among ROM correction channels can be set by checking the CORST bit value in the highest-priority channel of the program targeted for ROM correction.
Once the processing has been prioritized in this way, ROM correction processing can be performed even when an interrupt has occurred.
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